Irv Lee – Higherplane Aviation Training ltd
Mentoring the Private Pilot flying in the UK, EASA/NPPL
Testing, Renewals & Validations, PPL Masterclasses, Radio Training
& Testing, South African Vacation & Licensing advice, Consultancy
and much more besides . . . . .
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PPL Masterclass: After three very successul classes early in 2020, they are suspended due to the virus crisis - BUT - why not register now for when they and flying itself becomes possible again. Interest registered means you are consulted on dates. See tab on left side
WARNING - Update in Progress due to changes, to be completed before April 8th
Welcome to Irv Lee's Original Frequently Asked Questions page
answers, unless detailed otherwise in the answer assume the pilot posing the question:
Disclaimer: These answers have no legal authority and could be superceded or become wrong or redundant
at any time. Use these answers only as a base starting point for checking with the relevant authorities.
- is a General Aviation ('GA') pilot flying in the UK.
- flies "S.E.P" (Land based) aircraft (the replacement / successor to the old 'Group A').
- has a UK issued PPL with no extra ratings or privileges, unless indicated otherwise.
NB: These answers may well need to be amended slightly now that the ANO 2016, EASA FCL and EASA NCO are in force. Considered them to be "under review".
Also, there is now a FAQ page for specific EASA FAQs and another for the complicated
rules of which combination of medicals and licences are legal- see menu on left.
The FAQs and Answers:
The Signature to extend your rating on the Certificate of Experience
(form FCL 150 CJAR, as it was designated in early versions) must now be done by a UK flight examiner
(non-UK flight examiner cannot sign revalidations by experience) or a UK licensed instructor holding FCL.945 privileges in their
licence IF they personally completed the hour's training which forms part of the revalidation by experience. This signature is part of
the process - if you do not get this signed by a UK examiner or the UK FCL.945 intructor who completed the training flight BEFORE it expires, you have wasted doing the
12 hours - you will need a test (a proficiency check) just because you let the form expire without getting it signed in advance- even though you met all the other
- How do I find a local Aviation Medical Examiner (AME) for my EASA medical?
Easy - search by town, region or partial postcode
on this AME Search Site.
These doctors can issue either full EASA medicals or the EASA LAPL medical certificate. Your G.P. could issue the LAPL medical
certificate, if they wish to take part in the scheme. Note that under EASA,
whichever State owns your medical records is the State that handles all your licence and rating paperwork. It is no good
having an initial medical in (say) Austria and expecting the UK CAA to process your licence/rating paperwork, unless of
course you transfer your medical records from the Austrian CAA to the UK CAA. If you have a medical (non-initial) abroad,
you must make individual arrangements for the data and reports to be sent to the State which owns your medical records. Be warned, if you have a medical in Germany, you are 'stuck' with Germany, as local national laws (which EASA has somehow worded FCL not to over-rule) forbid transfer of medical data to other states.
,br.If you are a S.A. PPL holder looking for a S.A. approved AME, I maintain these contact details:
S.A. AMEs in the UK. (If you
know of any more, they can be added for free!).
- My Certificate of Experience (SEP Rating)
expiry date has passed, and I have not met the requirements. What can I do?
It's probably not as bad as you expect, you do need a test with an examiner, but if expired more than 3 years,
any retraining must be within either an EASA ATO or an EASA DTO (basically, a proper training club/school). Due to EASA FCL changes during 2019, you can retrain for renewal outside such a club/school if your rating expired fewer than 3 years ago.
The test (called a Proficiency Check) is something like a good club rental checkout, but since late October 2004
has had to include a navigation secton too, This nav leg need not be as long as the initial PPL
skills test's navigation leg. There is however a pass/fail on the whole test.
Anything can be in the general handling parts, but
expect the usual various Stalls, 45 degree steep turns, 'emergencies' (PFL, EFATO), and normal, glide and flapless circuits.
As long as SEP is mentioned in section XII of your licence, the rating can be signed up by the examiner concerned.
- Can an Instructor sign the revalidation of my rating in my (UK CAA issued) licence?
If the instructor who completed your 'training hour' flight as part of your 12 hour revalidation by experience has FCL.945 privileges mentioned in his/her UK issued licence, this instructor can sign your revalidation and process the paperwork to the CAA. If he/she was not the instructor doing your hour's training flight, or does not have 'FCL.945' mentioned, or is a non-UK instructor, you must see a UK flight examiner for the revalidation signature. NB: Strangely, a UK licence needs a UK examiner to (or instructor with FCL.945) to sign a revalidation by experience. You cannot go to an examiner from another state for revalidation by experience, but you can for a proficiency check!
- Can I fly UK (G Reg) aircraft in the UK on an FAA/NZ/Australian/South African PPL or must I convert to a UK or EASA licence?
It depends on whether you want to fly an EASA aircraft (e.g most certified aircraft, like a PA28, C172, etc) or a non-EASA aircraft (e.g. kit aircraft, RV series, etc)
If you learned abroad,
you probably need a UK instructor to
brief you well on UK Air Law, and maybe to
'ride shotgun' for a couple of cross-country flights in the UK. It would be well worth looking at
the Pre- Preflight Checklist which takes you
through all the legalities and tips before making a flight in the UK, and many enjoy a PPL Masterclass not only for the tips and advice, but in meeting like minded GA pilots to perhaps team up with. If you want to convert
to an EASA PPL, see Q&A 25 below.
- Can I fly "VFR on Top"?
Well, VFR itself is an international agreement, so technically everywhere allows VFR above cloud unless
it is locally banned or your licence privileges stop you doing that. EASA and UK licences now allow it, but remember, if you intend
to be VFR above cloud above 3000', cloud separation applies - you need to be 1000' above the tops or 1000' below the base, as well as having 1500m horizontal separation. At 3000' or below, 140kts or below, the same applies, UNLESS you take the option of being clear of cloud and in sight of surface, in which case your licence privileges of VFR allow flight down to 1500 metres visibility. HOWEVER, the new SERA rules have limited VFR at 3000' or below to 'in sight of surface'.
- What's the minimum horizontal visibility for flight for me in the UK? VFR tables show 1500
metres in "Class G" airspace (the "Open FIR"), but that seems very low.
Class G, in the UK, and in other countries that include this option, that is correct, it is that low! (Assuming clear of cloud, sight of surface, 3000'amsl or below, 140kts or below). If you increase speed above 140kts, or enter controlled airspace, visibility minimum is 5km and 8km depending on whether you are FL100 (and below) or above it. It doesn't mean flying in those conditions as a basic PPL is fun or safe!
- What is the '90 day passenger rule'?
The best way to understand this is to regard your rating as permission to fly SOLO (ie: totally alone)
for its 2 year validity.
For non-solo flight, on the day you want to take passengers,
you must have completed 3 take offs and 3 landings in an aircraft covered by that
rating (in any loggable capacity, eg: P1 or under
training, with or without passengers) in the previous 90 days. If your flight includes any flying at night, at least one
take off and one landing of the
3 must have also been at night unless you have an Instrument Rating. Note that if you only fly a multi engined aircraft every day for 90 days, all
those take offs and landings and experience counts for nothing for taking passengers in a single engine aircraft under this rule. There are some recent 'work arounds' including taking a qualified non-handling pilot as the sole passenger if you have a non-EASA licence.
(See also Q19 and Q26)
- What happens when a syndicate member needs checking out but also fails the 90 day rule?
This is usually a syndicate rule issue, not a legal one (but in saying that, it is probably a sensible rule!). A member, fully legal in both medical and rating terms, lapsed on the
90 day rule,
fails syndicate rules by not flying for a while, and needs a checkout before flying the syndicate aircraft. There are now extra complications depending on whether the licence in question is an EASA licence of some sort.
Under syndicate rules the member needs a syndicate checkout, but the 'failed' member cannot fly the
aircraft legally with a passenger, due to the 90 day rule, so cannot take the 'checker' if they have an EASA licence... (unless the checker is an
instructor.) Under new legislation applying to CAA licences and non EASA aircraft, it is possible to take another pilot as a passenger in specific circumstances.
Remember, legally, whatever the licence, unless there are insurance restrictions, the member can fly the aircraft solo - it is only syndicate-decided rules which stop it.
So here are suggestions - choose one of these - it's not up to me to choose for you as I don't know your syndicate
rules or what you require. I strongly recommend Option 2, as it is the only clear, minimum risk option with no
doubt about it. Option 1 may well be risky to the health of both aircraft and pilot in certain circumstances, so I would
not normally recommend it, but if for example the pilot has been flying light multi-engined aircraft regularly, there
may not be a problem - it's entirely a matter for the syndicate, the pilot, and perhaps the insurance company!
- Change syndicate rules (inform your insurance company first in case they have based a premium on the fact
that anyone flying the aircraft has met previously established criteria).
- The syndicate member should go to a club and get fully current on another aircraft, both in skill terms and
for the 90 day passenger rule - it is the member who has
failed syndicate rules, so it should be the member who goes to the trouble of getting out of the problem.
- there seems to be ways under EASA to designate a required crew member for certain reasons, who would not be the handling pilot,
but this option has not been explored yet.
- I don't want to undergo a test - how do I revalidate
my 2 year S.E.P. rating on my Certificate of Experience?
Well if you don't want a test, you look in your licence at the Certificate of
Experience and in the final
year of the two year validity, you must complete 12 hours personal flying in S.E.P. aircraft (or
Touring Motor Gliders TMG if you happen to have a current TMG rating too). The 12 hours MUST include:
- at least 6 hours pilot in command (P1). The rest could be P1 or training eg: for a night module,
circuits with an instructor
for currency, etc.
- one hour must be with an EASA Flight Instructor or Class Rating Instructor,
logged as training (P u/t) (get it signed!).
The instructor must be qualified to be pilot in command on the aircraft. (e.g. if
it is in your tailwheel aircraft, the instructor must have tail wheel sign off). (Note that in the final year, if you pass
a flying test with an examiner for another aircraft class or type eg: a Multi-Engine (re-)Test,
this 'instructor flight' is not needed, even if the other test you passed did not last an hour.) Since EASA rules came in
the hour can be made up from separate flights, so for example,
totalling a couple of aero training flights in a Pitts that needed to break for weather or refuel could count if they totalled an hour or more.
- 12 take offs and 12 landings. (See also Q26.)
The best thing to do is if you are using the '12 hour by experience' route
detailed above, once all flying requirements are met,
ask a UK flight examiner or your UK FCL.945 instructor for a rating revalidation signature - don't wait for the last day as you may
have problems finding an examiner. When using the 12 hour route, this
final signature can now be done at any time in the final year of valdity, and it extends the rating not only by 2 years from the expiry date, but also to the end of that month.
Should I leave my revalidation biennial instructor flight until the last minute so I do not 'waste' any
of the current 2 year life?
NO - you lose nothing doing it at any time in the second year, and meeting the requirements in any order.
If you wait, you'll find weather or maintenance issues conspire against you and you won't get it done. When you
have met all the requirements for revalidation, even if your rating still has months to run, you can get
signed up in advance so that your expiry date is extended by another 2 years beyond
that original date, thereby wasting nothing. (See previous question if you want to know who can sign
you up for another 2 years). Your rating is always signed up to the 'end of month' of the date 2 years further on.
I fly all sorts of Single Engine aircraft including simple ones (like a Cessna 150)
and 'variants' like tailwheel, retractable undercarriage,
constant speed props, etc, which now need instructor checks before flying them for the first time.
Do I have to do 12 hours on each variant sort in the second year to keep current on them all?
NO - if these different aircraft are all in the Single Engine Piston (land) class,
then you add together any experience on any of them - they are all 'the same thing' as far as the 2 year class rating is concerned,
unless they have a specific type rating like
the Piper Malibu. You don't even have to do a single flight in any particular one of these 'variants'
- if you did all your '12 hours' requirements in a simple Cessna 150, getting your S.E.P. rating
signed off again covers you for all your S.E.P. aircraft for another 2 years,
whatever their propellors or wheels do.
Equally, if your 12 hours consisted of some sort of 'mix',
eg: 4 hours on a Cessna 150, 6 hours in a Cub (taildragger), 2 hours in a 'retractable' Piper,
there's no difference (other than the fun factor), this mix also meets the 12 hour requirements for
S.E.P (land) Class.
Same applies for the 90 day passenger rule - all experiences within a class add up together.
For various reasons I can't fly 12 hours in one year. How do I revalidate my 2 year S.E.P. rating on my Certificate of Experience?
Look at your 'expiry date' on the certificate of experience in your licence. One way to revalidate without losing any 'date' is to wait until
you have under 3 months to go, and then have
a proficiency checkflight with a flight examiner - a sort of mini-GFT similar to a good rental checkout
but since Oct 2004 this has included a navigation leg too. Your original expiry date
would then be extended by the 2 years.
You can actually do this one flight (the proficiency check with an examiner) at any time, but if it is not in the final 3 months
before expiry, your rating will be renewed from the date of test, not the date of original expiry (but date will always be 'end of month'). One
thing to note is that if you abandon the 12 hour route to take this test and FAIL, you cannot fly again as
pilot in command until you have passed a re-test, so the 12 hour route effectively disappears if you take
the test and fail.
How do I become a Flying Instructor (fixed wing)?
You have to undergo a special Flight Instructor Course ("FIC") with an FIC Instructor, to become a restricted flight
instructor, teaching under the supervision of an unrestricted one. You can now charge for tuition with just a PPL and Class 2 medical as long as you have the instructor rating. (If you have not passed CPL or ATPL ground exams, your teaching of ab-initio pupils is confined to LAPL students). The FIC (instructor) course involves
30 hours flying (some simulator possible, talk to the chosen school)
plus 125 hours groundschool (some of that is "directed self tuition"). The test is gruelling
- maybe 90 minutes in the air and about 3 to 4 hours being grilled on the ground.
There are pre-requisites to the course, namely:
When I fly in or out of airports in Class D Airspace like Bournemouth or Southampton and visibility
is not perfect, is it safer to ask for a Special VFR Clearance rather than a VFR one?
- 200 hours total flight time (150 'P1' if PPL holder, only 100 'P1' if CPL/ATPL). Within this, 20 hours must be P1 cross-country time.
- You must pass a pre-entry flight test to assess your ability to start the course. If you pass,
you must start the course within 6 months or do it again.
- 30 hours of the 200 total must have been on Single Engine Piston, and 5 of
these 30 must have been in the 6 months prior to the pre-entry test mentioned above.
- You need to have had 10 hours instrument instruction (of which up to 5 could be on an approved simulator)
- You must meet the 'knowledge requirements for CPL(A)'. (i.e.: This currently means actually pass the CPL or ATPL ground examinations)
If you did ask for SVFR, for whatever reason, you force the controller to separate you from other SVFR or IFR traffic by a certain distance. This sounds like a great idea, but often isn't, as the controller will NOT provide any separation at all from other VFR traffic, and as often they have IFR traffic arriving and departing, guaranteeing this separation for you might involve delaying you (a lot).
For your departure, the controller may well keep keep you on the ground when any IFR or SVFR traffic is arriving or departing, or make you orbit at VRPs if you are arriving, whilst separation is maintained from IFR or SVFR traffic that may be approaching or departing.
If visibility is less than 5km, the only way to fly inside Class D (without instrument qualifications to be IFR) is Special VFR, and, it is only available in a CTR (the volume of airspace which touches the ground).
However, a low cloud ceiling also means VFR might not be available even in perfect visibility. What is cloud ceiling? is it the same as cloud base? (NO! See next question). So if you wanted to fly in Class D, and you asked for a normal VFR clearance, and either the visibility was less than 5km or the cloud ceiling (see next question) is below height 1500', you might be told 'VFR not available' - it is not common for 'but SVFR is available' to be added, you normally have to (know to) ask for it, if you want it.
When Should I ask for a Special VFR Clearance rather than a VFR one?
Well, as a basic PPL, for a Class D or E CTR:
I have an IR-Restricted (UK EASA version of the IMC rating) - can I make IFR instrument approaches in real IMC in Class D
- When the visibility at an airfield you will use (or enter its ATZ inside Class D whilst in transit) falls below 5km.
- When the cloud ceiling falls below 1500' height. If you are arriving or departing an airfield in a Class D CTR, a cloud ceiling below height 1500' forces 'no VFR' - therefore Special VFR is needed for the basic PPL pilot. But what is a 'ceiling'? It is a cloud base that is reported to be 'broken' or 'overcast' (in other words, 5 to 8 eights of the sky covered with cloud at a cetain height). So a cloud reported as broken or overcast at height 1300' in Class D would stop VFR inbounds and outbounds and force Special VFR. However, cloud reported as few 800', scattered 1100', scattered 1300' would still allow VFR as there is no layer of broken or overcast.
- In rare procedural circumstances in Class D or E. You would normally only be interested in VFR in these classes,
but if you were in transit through Class D and, due to a low cloud
base, wanted to be exempt from the 1000' rule over built up areas, (was 1500' once!) then a Special VFR clearance exempts you from that rule
but you would still have to obey the 'sufficient height to glide clear' and the 500 foot rules.
Yes, subject to:
I only have a basic UK PPL. What do I need to fly IFR in the UK?
- the aircraft being approved for IFR (eg: not a 'permit' aircraft)
- the instrumentation being sufficient for the intended and agreed
task. (eg; you would always need a radio, an altimeter, various gyro
indicators, etc, but if you were NOT using the ILS, you
don't need a serviceable ILS instrument unless the airfield was
notified as always requiring it.) A transponder is always needed and nowadays, if a transponder is capable of ALT (Mode C), it must be used in any airspace. (List will be expanded later)
- the runway visual range being above minima for that particular runway and at least 1500m.
- you being 'in current practice' or setting a suitable higher descent minimum based on recent practice.
Since the ANO changes of 2016, a type of instrument qualification is required - for example, the IMC rating or I/R (restricted) depending on the sort of licence you have. Note that IMC ratings, which can still exist in non-EASA UK PPLs can no longer be used in EASA aircraft, as the older licences only have LAPL privileges in such aircraft, and LAPL privileges mean VFR only. An EASA licence with an I/R (restricted) is the equivalent of the old IMC in UK airspace in EASA aircraft.
I have seen 'colour codes' on METARS from Military fields. Where is the definition of
what they mean?
They relate solely to visibility and 'lowest level of cloud desginated "Scattered" or worse'. As they are
designed for military pilots they concentrate at the 'difficult end' to help distinguish between different
conditions for instrument approaches. G.A. pilots should be wary of GREEN (which sounds good!) as it
is not brilliant and could even be illegal for VFR in the Class "D" airspace around some military bases such as Brize Norton (5km is the minimum for VFR in Class D). My graphic
showing the definition is here, but note nowadays Amber is split into Amber 1 and Amber 2, as they are low visibility of cloudbase, my graphic combines them:
Military METAR Colour Codes.
White and Blue are the ones to interest general hobby flying, but remember they do not cover 'winds' in any
way, and do not appear on forecasts (TAFs) although they might be quoted verbally in forecast context.
I have had a night rating for a while. How do I keep it current?
If you have night qualifications then you can legally fly solo at night for the whole of the validity of
your normal rating - so if you have a Single Engine Piston (Land) rating valid for 2 years and a night
qualification, then that is valid at night too for all that time for solo flight.
The only snag comes when you want to take passengers. The 90 day rule applies, (see item 7 above) and you must have done 3 take offs
and 3 landings in the previous 90 days to take passengers, and for night flight, at least one of each of those must have been
at night (unless you have an instrument rating). So you might have to do a quick solo circuit before taking passengers unless you meet the 90 day rule.
What is "Differences Training" in relation to features such as Constant Speed
Props and Retractable Undercarriage, etc?
There were 5 features in JAR which make an SEP aircraft a 'complex variant', there are now 7, and there are 6 for the equivalent
in the UK NPPL. The first time you fly an aircraft
with one or more of the following, you need signed-off successful training for that feature from an Instructor.
The content of the training is not defined - it just has to be relevant and sufficient to satisfy the instructor.
So if you were trying to fly a tailwheel aircraft for the first time, you might expect a few hours, but if
it were just a retractable undercarriage, then nothing like that amount of time - a little groundwork looking at
speeds and emergency procedures, mainly circuit work in the air, and a little
time outside to demo 'warning horns' and a surprise PFL to see if you remembered the wheels,
then some induced distraction as you rejoin just
to see if you remember again in the circuit - anything relevant.
- Tailwheel. For NPPL, if you fly a tailwheel initially, you need differences training
for 'nosewheel' should you change.
- Retractable Undercarriage
- Constant Speed Prop (Variable Pitch Prop)
- Cabin Pressurisation
- Super/Turbo Charging
- Glass Cockpit (not yet NPPL)
- Single Power Lever (not yet NPPL)
- for NPPL 'SSEA': Normal Cruise speed over 140kts.
If you have flown a complex feature a long time ago, legally you still can without any re-training - do
you want to?
For retractable gear, maybe, maybe not - for tailwheel, I think you might
need some refreshing with an instructor!
SEE ALSO Q12 - these hours in any SEP Variant all add together towards your SEP hours for revalidation
or the 90 day passenger rule.
It always takes me time to work out the "overhead join". Is there a simple way to
work it out?
Overhead joins, given a high enough cloudbase, are the best way to join the circuit at a non-controlled field. If
traffic joins at other points (crosswind, downwind, base, even final approach), then there are multiple points
of potential conflict. By everyone joining overhead, this reduces to one place.
The basic rule is:
I'm an "ex-pat" living abroad but still flying on the basis of
my UK licence. How do I revalidate my S.E.P. rating every two years?
- Overfly the landing threshold 2000 feet above it, at 90 degrees to the runway, with your
back to the circuit side of the airfield. If you can get a word in, call 'overhead for deadside descent'.
- As an extra check that you've got it correct, as you fly over the landing point perpendicular to
the runway, you should find the runway stretches out away from the aircraft in the same 'direction' as the
circuit direction - in other words, at this point, if it is a left hand circuit, the runway will stretch out
to the left of the aircraft and it will stay on the left of the aircraft from now on - if it is a right
hand circuit the runway will be visibile stretching away through the right window, and it will stay on the
right side from now on,
- At this point start a descent with a gentle 'U' turn - which way?- the same way as the circuit direction - in other
words if the circuit is 'left hand', all your turns will be to the left, if the circuit is 'right hand' then all
turns will to the right. Keep a lookout all round, but observe the other traffic movements in the circuit and on
the runway. If you were unable to make an overhead radio call, you can now make it as 'deadside descending'.
- Your aim is to cross the non-landing end of the runway (the upwind end) at circuit height,
in a very tight-in crosswind position. Any traffic on the runway taking off into the circuit should pass under you in the climb out.
- When, looking back, your tailplane is level with the runway, turn downind and make the downwind call. If you
have observed any other traffic already in the circuit and there is any conflict, try and fit in behind them.
Well, the 12 hours and take-offs and landings should be no trouble,
but your hour long instructor flight needs to be with an instructor from an EASA State. This is bound to cause a lot of problems for people in places like Canada, the USA away from the usual EASA schools.
It's not even quite as simple as getting an EASA instructor who is passing by to give you the hour's flight. As he or she will be 'p1', not you, he or she will have to comply with whatever the local country wants to be allowed to be 'p1' in a local aircraft.
If you manage to get all your 'by experience' revalidation done, you can only use a UK CAA approved examiner or FCL.945 instructor to get the final signature in your licence to extend the expiry date by two years.
You may need to send the paperwork off to the CAA at Gatwick to get your rating revalidated on the ratings form in your licence unless you can find a UK examiner or complete your hour's training flight with a UK FCL.945 instructor. An EASA examiner from another state cannot sign UK revalidation by experience.
However, any EASA flight examiner could fly an SEP Proficiency Check for revalidation with you before you expire, and you wouldn't need the 'revalidation by experience' route at all. The best time to do this is in the final 3 months of the rating, as your current expiry date is then extended for two years without changing the end month. If you do it early, the two years is based on month of proficiency check. (All ratings expire 'end of month', so for an SEP expiring 31/12/2020, a proficiency check in October 2020 would get you a new expiry date of 31/12/2022 as it within 3 months before expiry, whereas if the proficiency check were flown in September 2020, the new expiry date would be 30/09/2022 as it is early than 3 months before expiry.)
I have a Commercial licence and an EASA Class 1 Medical but I only instruct for PPL - do I need the Class 1 medical?
Nowadays, no, you can instruct at PPL level on a Class 2 EASA medical with either a commercial licence or a PPL. (You cannot use a LAPL medical for instructing for the PPL.)
When I fly right-seat with a friend, (a PPL flying P1), I navigate and
handle the radio calls. Can I log anything eg: P2?
No, there's no official designation you could use in this case, you are merely a passenger.
If you just want to record the flight for posterity for some reason,
you could put it in your logbook and designate it
PASSENGER rather than P1 or P2 but you mustn't put any time at all into the columns
which 'total up'.
Before any flight, it must be clear who is pilot in command. This pilot logs the time as P1.
It is permissible for the role to be swapped sometime in the flight, but you can never
double log the P1 time. eg: An 80 minute
flight normally ends up being all 80 minutes P1 to one person, but by agreement it could be (say) 50 to one
and 30 to the other. You decide between you, as long as you both know who is in command at any moment, sharing the
time is ok as long as it is not double logged. If two qualified pilots are both sitting with controls, not only
discuss who is P1 but also who will deal with emergencies such as EFATO. Without the discussion, it is very
easy to get confusion at the very moment when there is no time for discussion.
Logging P2 is reserved for flights on aircraft which are designated
as requiring two pilots at all times, so any p2 logging on normal GA SEP aircraft is a nonesense.
The other confusion which is very widespread is the logging of P1 (Pi/c) and P1/s (or Pic/us) for rental or syndicate
checkouts. Many instructors log P1 to themselves and tell the pilot being checked out to log p1/s just for a rental
checkout. This is SO endemic in the hours-building world, no-one bothers to read up on it.
If you want to read up on it, try CAP804, the 'bible' for interpretting regulations. In there you
will find a large table of 'when to log what' but don't read it before looking a the footnotes.
You'll find out from the footnote that of all the cases listed for P1/s (Pic/us), the only one
approved for use by PPLs
is logging by a PPL is the 'successful test with an examiner', or specific flights pre-authorised by the CAA.
If you have P1/s (or Pic u/s) in your
log book and it was for a rental or syndicate checkout, not a test with an examiner, have a think about what made you decide to log it like
that way. (Logging is your responsibility.)
Was it you after reading CAP804, or was it because 'everyone does it' or you were told
by someone who would benefit from taking the P1 time themselves? What happens if you log p1/s today and in 6
months time the CAA decides that p1/s hours on a rental (or maybe more likely, syndicate checks) is not what they meant by
a test and tell examiners clearly that it should not count? (When I applied for Instructor Revalidation in 2001, my log book was checked that I was not
including P1 hours on these pure rental checks as instructional training hours.)
For rental checkouts, if the renter is fully legal to fly, I log nothing and the
renter logs P1 for the whole of the checkout, but then I'm not hours building! We just have a pre flight agreement that
Pilot In Command transfers to me should I need to say "I have control".
How do I convert my 'foreign' ICAO (eg: FAA, SA, etc etc) PPL to an EASA PPLL?
There are huge amounts of unnecessary Gold Plating applied to this since EASA came in. See
question 14 on the EASA Questions page
Can the take offs and landings required for the 90 day passenger rule and the
SEP revalidation 'by personal experience' route be 'touches and goes' or do only 'fullstops' count?
Just think - after a 'touch and go', ask yourself if you landed the aircraft? How can the answer not be "yes"?
Then ask yourself if you took off again? How can the answer not be "yes" again?
(Also, can you
imagine trying to convince a local council planning authority that had put a maximum limit on aircraft movements that a
'touch and go' was NOT a landing followed by a take off?)
A touch and go is definitely one landing followed by one take off for 90 day or
SEP/TMG revalidation purposes. If you are told otherwise, it was probably
either by the person charging you for aircraft rental (full stops take longer) or it was someone confusing this
issue with the night rating training (prior-, not post-issue). Where either EASA or the law wants
full stop landings, this is specifically stated in the regulation. There is no requirement to 'full stop' in
the 90 day or revalidation requirements.
What does an IMC rating (I/r restricted) allow me to do that I can't do with a PPL?
Valid in the UK (and Channel Islands):
No privileges are conferred for Class A CTAs, TMAs, or Airways.
Where can I find information on the NPPL?
- In Classes D, E, F and G, to fly IFR down to zero visibility, providing the aircraft is 'legal' for it, in or out of sight of the surface.
You might want to look at the official NPPL site
When flying with a transponder, when should it be set to ALT?
As you are lining up on the runway, if not before, and used for the whole flight unless a controller tells you to "Stop ALT" - use of ALT is now a legal requirement if you have the feature, unless there are electrical load problems.
Do I need to fly complexity features in aircraft every 2 years to keep using
Aircraft with complexity features (tailwheel, retractable, constant speed props, pressurisation, turbo/supercharged, Single Level Power Control, EFIS)
were originally meant to be flown every 2 years to keep the ability to fly them in future, BUT this is not the case once differences training had been signed off on Single Engine Single Pilot aircraft (eg: SEP). You remain qualified for life.
I have an SEP rating in my PPL - Can I legally fly UK microlights (if checked out)?
Yes, subject to differences training for microlights signed off in the log book by a microlight qualified instructor.
If I have an EASA Class 2 medical for PPL use, issued when I was still 49 years old but almost 50,
does it run for the full 2 years (until I am nearly 52) or does it stop on my 51st birthday, seeing medical are
only valid for one year for pilots in their 50s?
An EASA medical's validity period is based on the age you were when it was issued, not the age you are at the time of
using it! Therefore you would get a full 2 years if it was issued just before your 50th birthday. However, for some reason this does not apply to pilots getting 5 year medicals coming up to their 40th Birthdays - their '5' year period will not be allowed
to go beyond their 42nd birthday.
What documents do I have to take on a flight abroad in my G-reg aircraft?
This list is being reviewed in the light of recent SERA changes:
Generally you need:
1- Documents specified by the ANO as you are in a G-reg aircraft (see below)
2- Documents otherwise needed - even if you weren't in an aircraft. eg: Passport
3- Documents a foreign country may want in addition to our ANO requirements. eg: VAT receipt, insurance, log book, or
maintenance Release to Service.
The ANO requirements are (for private flights, in addition to those required for internal flights):
and if you are in a 'permit' aircraft, (take the 'permit') or perhaps you are flying on an ICAO licence from a 3rd country, do not
go unless you are sure you have permission from the foreign authority, whether that permission is specific or 'blanket'
(as it is from time to time for taking G-reg permit aircraft to France). You might be used to the French
'blanket' permission for PFA permit home-builds, but did you know Belgium wants to be asked about
permit aircraft each time, and also wants a pre-paid fee for permission?
If I use an EASA PPL, SEP rating, and a LAPL medical, what happens to revalidation/validity?
- Certificate of Airworthiness
- Radio Licence (installation licence)
- Crew Licences (I would take medical, R/T licence and ratings in addition to actual PPL)
- Cert of Registration
- Interception Signal list (more likely to be needed now after 9-11, apparently!)
If you decide to use a LAPL medical but have a PPL-SEP combination, this does not change your SEP revalidation requirements at all. You are merely flying using the PPL-SEP combination with less than a full icao medical, you do NOT have a LAPL licence, so you do not follow LAPL validity rules.If I train towards a foreign (ICAO-compliant: eg: FAA, South African, etc)
PPL but don't complete to get the licence, will the training count in the UK towards a JAA PPL?
I would advise going to the LAA and asking for credit towards an NPPL-SSEA
How do I claim back fuel duty for flights abroad?
You fill in the HO60 form, attach fuel receipts for fuel loaded in the UK prior
to your flight. Use the online site HMRC Fuel Drawback to get the forms or submit online
Where can I find the UK self declare medical?
Self declare process. or if that link changes, try Googling "CAA Self Declare Portal"
If I do not complete the 12 hour route to revalidate my SEP rating,
what is the content of the test which replaces it?
If you don't revalidate via the '12 hour route' (which include an hour with an instructor and the paperwork/signature
from an examiner before expiry), you have to do a test with an examiner, which is "fail-able". It is called a proficiency check. After expiry, you will need a certificate from a club or school (an ATO or a DTO in EASA language) to say you are ready for test before the test itself, IF your rating has expired by more than three years. If fewer than 3 years, an EASA instructor can ALSO declare you as ready for test, even outside an ATO or DTO.
A proficiency check for revalidation or renewal used to be a "good club checkout" - a general handling test, but since Oct 28th 2004,
these tests must also contain navigation. The length of the nav leg is up to the examiner.
Here is the Proficiency Check in pdf form - see page 3 for the content.
This is the examiner check sheet, but you can ignore sections 3b and 6 for SEP revalidations or renewals.
It contains some things you may not expect - "abandoned take off" for example.
I had a JAA PPL which has expired at the end of its 5 years, can I get an EASA PPL?
Yes, at the moment (late 2019), a JAA PPL even when expired is legally an EASA PPL that needs renewing - it is done with the CAA conversion form, srg1104. It is better to renew any ratings (eg: SEP) that you want to use in the foreseeable future with suitable proficiency checks and send all the paperwork (renewal and conversion) in togther, otherwise, you would have to pay the CAA to add renewed ratings to your new EASA PPL when you pass the renewal checks later.
How can I find information on Danger Area activity and inactivity so I can
plan a route through/over/round one?
Try the danger area link on this NATS page which also has
the backups for NOTAM lists when the main notam checking site is down.
I can never find the right CAA form for licence purposes. Where is the index?
Try this for the index